Containers ¶
This notebook serves as a reference for all the container types in HoloViews, with an extensive list of small, selfcontained examples wherever possible, allowing each container type to be understood and tested independently. The container types generally need to contain Elements to be useful, which are described separately. We first cover the treebased containers, which are used in many of the examples elsewhere:

Layout

Collect components into a tree, displaying them side by side (
+
operator) 
Overlay

Collect components into a tree, displaying them on top of one another (
*
operator)
The remaining container types are most useful for exploring parameter spaces

HoloMap
 Visualize Ndimensional spaces using sliders or as an animation.

GridSpace
 Parameter space in two dimensions laid out in a grid.

NdLayout
 Parameter space of any dimensionality in a layout with titles.

NdOverlay
 Parameter space of any dimensionality in an overlay with a legend
There is a separate Composing Data tutorial explaining how each of these can be combined and nested, once you are familiar with the individual containers.
Trees ¶
import numpy as np
import holoviews as hv
hv.notebook_extension()
To display detailed information about each object displayed in this notebook run the following code in a cell:
%output info=True
(E.g. just change the type of the above cell to Code, when running this notebook interactively, and then execute it). When
info=True
, the notebook will pop up a detailed list and explanation of the available options for visualizing each container type, after that notebook cell is executed. So, to find out all the options for any of these container types, just press
<ShiftEnter>
on the corresponding cell in the live notebook. See the
Options tutorial
tutorial for detailed information about how to set or examine these options for a given component.
Layout
¶
Layout
places nearly any possible components (both
Element
s and containers) alongside each other, as described in more detail in the
Introductory tutorial
. The
.cols()
method of
Layout
can be used to regroup the components into the specified number of columns for display, if desired.
points = [(0.1*i, np.sin(0.1*i)) for i in range(100)]
pair = hv.Curve(points) + hv.ItemTable([('A',1),('B',2)])
pair
Layout
subfigure labels
¶
By default, a
Layout
will label the subfigures as in
A
and
B
above. You can easily configure this behaviour by setting the
sublabel_format
option to
None
(no sublabels at all), or something like
"{numeric}"
: 2,
"{roman}"
: ii,
"{Roman}"
: II,
"{alpha}"
: b, or
"{Alpha}"
: B, and you can also change the sublabel size and relative position:
%%opts Layout [sublabel_format="({numeric})."] Curve [sublabel_size=20] ItemTable [sublabel_position=(0.05, 0.8) sublabel_size=10]
pair
You can also set these options globally if you consistently prefer a different style, or to disable the subfigure labelling altogether, either conveniently using a line magic in the notebook:
%opts Layout [sublabel_format=None]
(including tabcompletion of option names) or more verbosely using Python code:
from holoviews.core.options import Store, Options
Store.options.Layout = Options('plot', sublabel_format=None)
from holoviews.plotting import ElementPlot
ElementPlot.set_param(sublabel_size=30,sublabel_position=(1.0,0.1))
Layout with custom aspects ¶
The aspect ratios of Elements in a Layout can also be adjusted allowing you to quickly compose a complex figure.
%%opts Image.A [aspect=1.5] Image.C [aspect=0.5 sublabel_position=(0.7, 0.85) xticks=3]
np.random.seed(42)
(hv.Image(np.random.rand(25, 25), group='A') +
hv.Image(np.random.rand(25, 25), group='B') +
hv.Image(np.random.rand(25, 25), group='C'))
When aspects vary across elements, there is no single valid arrangement suitable for presenting the elements together. For instance, in the above example, the widths are kept constant while the heights are varying due to the differences in the element aspect ratios. An alternative arrangement may be achieved by setting the
aspect_weight
plot option from
0
(the default value shown above) to
1.0
:
%%opts Layout [aspect_weight=1.0] Image.A [aspect=1.5] Image.C [aspect=0.5 sublabel_position=(0.7, 0.85) xticks=3]
np.random.seed(42)
(hv.Image(np.random.rand(25, 25), group='A') +
hv.Image(np.random.rand(25, 25), group='B') +
hv.Image(np.random.rand(25, 25), group='C'))
The
aspect_weight
parameter can take any value between
0
and
1
which will adjust how any
Layout
containing elements with non squareaspects are presented. Note that when there are multiple rows and columns and many elements with different aspect ratios, it is often necessary to explore the effect of changing this parameter to generate a suitable plot.
Using
Empty
as a placeholder in
Layout
¶
In order to arrange elements within a
Layout
, it can sometimes be useful to introduce empty gaps. For this the
Empty
pseudoelement may be used as follows:
import numpy as np
from holoviews import Curve, ItemTable, Empty
sine_points = [(0.1*i, np.sin(0.1*i)) for i in range(100)]
cosine_points = [(0.1*i, np.cos(0.1*i)) for i in range(100)]
(hv.ItemTable([('A',1),('B',2)]) + hv.Curve(sine_points) + hv.Empty() + hv.Curve(cosine_points)).cols(2)
The
Empty
pseudoelement contains no data, cannot be customized in any way, and is never associated with a sublabel. The reason
Empty
is called a
pseudo
element is that it is only allowed to be used in
Layout
and cannot be used as an element in any other type of container.
Overlay
¶
Overlays are often built using
*
as in the
Introductory tutorial
, but they can also be built by hand. Using
vector_data
from the
VectorField
Element
example, we can overlay the vector field on top of an
Image
component (or any other component, though not all combinations will be useful or clear due to occlusion). The axis bounds will automatically expand to the largest required to show all of the overlaid items.
%%opts VectorField [size_index=2] (color='r') Image (cmap='gray')
x,y = np.mgrid[10:10,10:10] * 0.25
sine_rings = np.sin(x**2+y**2)*np.pi+np.pi
exp_falloff = 1/np.exp((x**2+y**2)/8)
vector_data = np.array([x.flatten()/5., # X positions
y.flatten()/5., # Y positions
sine_rings.flatten(), # Arrow angles
exp_falloff.flatten()]) # Arrow sizes
hv.Image(sine_rings) * hv.VectorField(vector_data.T)
Parameter Spaces ¶
HoloViews also supplies container classes useful for visualizing parameter spaces or phase spaces, i.e., large collections of results for various combinations of parameters. These containers allow HoloViews to work with arbitrarily highdimensional data, while having the underlying data held by
Element
s ensures that all of the data will be visualizable at every level of each data structure.
In addition to the container types discussed here, the
HeatMap
Element
is also useful for visualizing small twodimensional parameter spaces that have a single value for each location in the space. The
DynamicMap Tutorial
shows convenient ways to specify parameter spaces that can be visualized using the objects below. See also the separate
Lancet
tool, which works well with HoloViews for launching and collating results from separate computational jobs covering large parameter spaces, which HoloViews can then analyze with ease.
Specifying arbitrary parameter spaces ¶
First let us define some numpy arrays that we will use to define the types of parameter space below.
frequencies = np.linspace(0.5,2.0,5)
phases = np.linspace(0, np.pi*2, 5)
x,y = np.mgrid[50:51, 50:51] * 0.1
A parameter space of
Image
elements
¶
def sine_array(phase, freq):
return np.sin(phase + (freq*x**2+freq*y**2))
matrices = {(p, f): hv.Image(sine_array(p, f), label='Sinusoid Ring', group='Amplitude')
for f in [0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0] # Frequencies
for p in [0, np.pi/2, np.pi, 3*np.pi/2, 2*np.pi]} # Phases
To illustrate that
matrices
is a Python dictionary indexed by (phase, frequency), here are two of the dictionary elements side by side:
matrices[0,0.5] + matrices[np.pi,0.5]
A parameter space of
Curve
elements
¶
def sine_curve(phase, freq, samples=102):
xvals = [0.1* i for i in range(samples)]
return [(x, np.sin(phase+freq*x)) for x in xvals]
curves = {(round(p,2), f): hv.Curve(sine_curve(p,f))
for f in [1,2,3,4,5] # Frequencies
for p in [0, np.pi/2, np.pi, 3*np.pi/2, 2*np.pi]} # Phases
Here we display two of our curves and then overlay them together with
*
, which chooses new colors for each new curve according to a predefined color cycle that can be selected as a plot option:
curves[0,1] + curves[3.14, 2] + curves[0,1] * curves[3.14, 2]
HoloMap
¶
A
HoloMap
is a very powerful multidimensional data structure that can hold a very large number of similar
Element
objects, e.g. those measured for different values in a parameter space, and then allows easy exploration, animation, and slicing of the parameter and value spaces. Usage of this type is covered extensively in the
Exploring Data
tutorial. Here we show how a
HoloMap
can be used to explore all of the different
Image
objects created for each combination of phase and frequency:
%%opts Image (cmap='gray')
hv.HoloMap(matrices, kdims=['phase', 'frequency'])
GridSpace
¶
Whenever a
HoloMap
has more than one item to display, it will be visualized as an animation or using slider widgets as above, displaying one item (e.g. one
Element
) at any given time. If you have up to a twodimensional parameter space, you can see all your data items at once using a
GridSpace
to lay out your data with labelled axes:
%%output size=140
ring_space = hv.GridSpace(matrices, kdims=['phase', 'frequency'])
curve_space = hv.GridSpace(curves, kdims=['phase', 'frequency'])
ring_space + curve_space
Of course, each item in the grid can also be a combination of other plots, such as an
Overlay
or an
NdOverlay
(below).
GridMatrix
¶
Both
GridSpace
and
GridMatrix
are very useful for multivariate analysis. While
GridSpace
allows faceting the data by one or two dimensions, a
GridMatrix
is most useful to plot multiple variables against each other.
A simple example is to plot values drawn from various distributions against each other. First we create a
Table
containing the values for each distribution then we apply the
gridmatrix
operation, which will generate a
GridMatrix
instance:
%%opts GridMatrix [fig_size=150 padding=0.05] Scatter [show_grid=False] (alpha=0.1 s=7) Histogram {+axiswise}
distributions = [np.random.rayleigh, np.random.normal, np.random.exponential, np.random.logistic]
dist_table = hv.Table(tuple(d(2, size=1000) for d in distributions), vdims=[d.__name__ for d in distributions])
hv.operation.gridmatrix(dist_table).relabel(group='Distributions')
This also allows comparing multivariate distributions easily. Here we generate threedimensional distributions of various types and pass it to the gridmatrix operation either as a HoloMap or as a NdOverlay allowing us to view the distributions individually or overlaid on top of each other.
%%opts Layout [hspace=0.2 fig_size=150] Scatter (alpha=0.1) Histogram (alpha=0.3)
cycle = hv.plotting.Cycle()
holomap = hv.HoloMap({d.__name__: hv.Points(d(2, size=(1000, 3)))
for i, d in enumerate(distributions)}, kdims=['Distribution'])
hv.operation.gridmatrix(holomap) + hv.operation.gridmatrix(holomap.overlay())
NdLayout
¶
GridSpace
is great when you have a twodimensional parameter space, but fails to scale well beyond that. For higherdimensional parameter spaces, you can use an
NdLayout
, where the varying key dimensions are shown in the titles of the elements. An
NdLayout
is thus more verbose than an
GridSpace
, and the structure of the parameter space is not as immediately clear (since one has to read the titles to see the parameter values), but it can enumerate all the possible locations in a multidimensional space.
from holoviews import NdLayout
hv.NdLayout(matrices, kdims=['phase', 'frequency'])[0:1.6, 0:2].cols(3)
NdOverlay
¶
NdOverlay
is to
Overlay
what
NdLayout
is to
Layout
. In other words, an
NdOverlay
is a way of looking at a parameter space as an
Overlay
. However,
NdOverlay
is generally less useful than
NdLayout
, because some
Element
types don't overlay nicely over each other (e.g. multiple
Image
elements just obscure one another).
NdOverlay
is a nice, compact representation when it works well, but it is easy for an
NdOverlay
to present too much data jumbled together, overwhelming the viewer rather than revealing the data's structure.
Unlike a regular
Overlay
, the elements of an
NdOverlay
must always be of the same type.
To demonstrate how it works, we will overlay several of the curves from our phase space. To make sure the result is legible, we filter our parameter space down to four curves:
%%output size=150
four_curves = {(p, f): val for ((p,f), val) in curves.items() if p <=np.pi/2 and f<=2}
hv.NdOverlay(four_curves, kdims=['Phase', 'Frequency'])