holoviews.operation Package


operation Package

class holoviews.operation. TreeOperation ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.Operation

A TreeOperation is the most general Operation type; it accepts any HoloViews datastructure and outputs a Layout containing one or more elements.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params ) [source]

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. collapse ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Given an overlay of Element types, collapse into single Element object using supplied function. Collapsing aggregates over the key dimensions of each object applying the supplied fn to each group.

This is an example of an ElementOperation that does not involve any Raster types.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Callable fn ( allow_None=False, constant=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The function that is used to collapse the curve y-values for each x-value.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

fn ( a , axis=None , dtype=None , out=None , keepdims=<class numpy._globals._NoValue> )

Compute the arithmetic mean along the specified axis.

Returns the average of the array elements. The average is taken over the flattened array by default, otherwise over the specified axis. float64 intermediate and return values are used for integer inputs.

a : array_like
Array containing numbers whose mean is desired. If a is not an array, a conversion is attempted.
axis : None or int or tuple of ints, optional

Axis or axes along which the means are computed. The default is to compute the mean of the flattened array.

If this is a tuple of ints, a mean is performed over multiple axes, instead of a single axis or all the axes as before.

dtype : data-type, optional
Type to use in computing the mean. For integer inputs, the default is float64 ; for floating point inputs, it is the same as the input dtype.
out : ndarray, optional
Alternate output array in which to place the result. The default is None ; if provided, it must have the same shape as the expected output, but the type will be cast if necessary. See doc.ufuncs for details.
keepdims : bool, optional

If this is set to True, the axes which are reduced are left in the result as dimensions with size one. With this option, the result will broadcast correctly against the original arr .

If the default value is passed, then keepdims will not be passed through to the mean method of sub-classes of ndarray , however any non-default value will be. If the sub-classes sum method does not implement keepdims any exceptions will be raised.

m : ndarray, see dtype parameter above
If out=None , returns a new array containing the mean values, otherwise a reference to the output array is returned.

average : Weighted average std, var, nanmean, nanstd, nanvar

The arithmetic mean is the sum of the elements along the axis divided by the number of elements.

Note that for floating-point input, the mean is computed using the same precision the input has. Depending on the input data, this can cause the results to be inaccurate, especially for float32 (see example below). Specifying a higher-precision accumulator using the dtype keyword can alleviate this issue.

>>> a = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
>>> np.mean(a)
2.5
>>> np.mean(a, axis=0)
array([ 2.,  3.])
>>> np.mean(a, axis=1)
array([ 1.5,  3.5])

In single precision, mean can be inaccurate:

>>> a = np.zeros((2, 512*512), dtype=np.float32)
>>> a[0, :] = 1.0
>>> a[1, :] = 0.1
>>> np.mean(a)
0.546875

Computing the mean in float64 is more accurate:

>>> np.mean(a, dtype=np.float64)
0.55000000074505806
force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. chain ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Defining an ElementOperation chain is an easy way to define a new ElementOperation from a series of existing ones. The argument is a list of ElementOperation (or ElementOperation instances) that are called in sequence to generate the returned element.

chain(operations=[gradient, threshold.instance(level=2)])

This operation can accept an Image instance and would first compute the gradient before thresholding the result at a level of 2.0.

Instances are only required when arguments need to be passed to individual operations so the resulting object is a function over a single argument.

param List operations ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
A list of ElementOperations (or ElementOperation instances) that are applied on the input from left to right..
param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Chain, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the result after having applied the chain.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Parameter output_type ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default=<class ‘holoviews.element.raster.Image’>, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The output type of the chain operation. Must be supplied if the chain is to be used as a channel operation.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Image

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. gradient ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Compute the gradient plot of the supplied Image.

If the Image value dimension is cyclic, the smallest step is taken considered the cyclic range

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Gradient, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the output gradient matrix.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Image

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. ElementOperation ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.Operation

An ElementOperation process an Element or HoloMap at the level of individual elements or overlays. If a holomap is passed in as input, a processed holomap is returned as output where the individual elements have been transformed accordingly. An ElementOperation may turn overlays in new elements or vice versa.

An ElementOperation can be set to be dynamic, which will return a DynamicMap with a callback that will apply the operation dynamically. An ElementOperation may also supply a list of Stream classes on a streams parameter, which can allow dynamic control over the parameters on the operation.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params ) [source]

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. factory ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Simple operation that constructs any element that accepts some other element as input. For instance, RGB and HSV elements can be created from overlays of Image elements.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Parameter output_type ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default=<class ‘holoviews.element.raster.RGB’>, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The output type of the factor operation. By default, if three overlaid Images elements are supplied, the corresponding RGB element will be returned.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of RGB

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. transform ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Generic ElementOperation to transform an input Image or RGBA element into an output Image. The transformation is defined by the supplied callable that accepts the data of the input Image (typically a numpy array) and returns the transformed data of the output Image.

This operator is extremely versatile; for instance, you could implement an alternative to the explict threshold operator with:

operator=lambda x: np.clip(x, 0, 0.5)

Alternatively, you can implement a transform computing the 2D autocorrelation using the scipy library with:

operator=lambda x: scipy.signal.correlate2d(x, x)

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Transform, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the result after applying the transform.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Callable operator ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Function of one argument that transforms the data in the input Image to the data in the output Image. By default, acts as the identity function such that the output matches the input.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Image

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. interpolate_curve ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Resamples a Curve using the defined interpolation method, e.g. to represent changes in y-values as steps.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param ObjectSelector interpolation ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=steps-mid, instantiate=False, objects=[‘steps-pre’, ‘steps-mid’, ‘steps-post’, ‘linear’], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Controls the transition point of the step along the x-axis.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. decimate ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Decimates any column based Element to a specified number of random rows if the current view defined by the x_range and y_range contains more than max_samples. By default the operation returns a DynamicMap with a RangeXY stream allowing dynamic downsampling.

param Integer max_samples ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=5000, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
Maximum number of samples to display at the same time.
param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param NumericTuple x_range ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, length=2, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The x_range as a tuple of min and max x-value. Auto-ranges if set to None.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=True, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
By default, the link_inputs parameter is set to True so that when applying shade, backends that support linked streams update RangeXY streams on the inputs of the shade operation.
param Boolean dynamic ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=True, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Enables dynamic processing by default.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[<class ‘holoviews.streams.RangeXY’>], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Integer random_seed ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=42, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
Seed used to initialize randomization.
param NumericTuple y_range ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, length=2, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The x_range as a tuple of min and max y-value. Auto-ranges if set to None.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. convolve ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Apply a convolution to an overlay using the top layer as the kernel for convolving the bottom layer. Both Image elements in the input overlay should have a single value dimension.

param NumericTuple kernel_roi ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default=(0, 0, 0, 0), instantiate=False, length=4, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
A 2-dimensional slice of the kernel layer to use in the convolution in lbrt (left, bottom, right, top) format. By default, no slicing is applied.
param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Convolution, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the convolved output.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Image

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. MapOperation ( **params ) [source]

Bases: param.parameterized.ParameterizedFunction

A MapOperation takes a HoloMap containing elements or overlays and processes them at the HoloMap level, returning arbitrary new HoloMap objects as output. Unlike ElementOperation, MapOperations can compute over all the keys and dimensions of the input map.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=MapOperation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string to identify the output of the MapOperation. By default this will match the MapOperation name.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. stack_area ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Stacks an (Nd)Overlay of Area Elements by offsetting their baseline.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. image_overlay ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Operation to build a overlay of images to a specification from a subset of the required elements.

This is useful for reordering the elements of an overlay, duplicating layers of an overlay or creating blank image elements in the appropriate positions.

For instance, image_overlay may build a three layered input suitable for the RGB factory operation even if supplied with one or two of the required channels (creating blank channels for the missing elements).

Note that if there is any ambiguity regarding the match, the strongest match will be used. In the case of a tie in match strength, the first layer in the input is used. One successful match is always required.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Transform, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the resulting overlay.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Tuple default_range ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default=(0, 1), instantiate=False, length=2, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The default range that will be set on the value_dimension of any automatically created blank image elements.
param String spec ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Specification of the output Overlay structure. For instance: Image.R * Image.G * Image.B Will ensure an overlay of this structure is created even if (for instance) only (Image.R * Image.B) is supplied. Elements in the input overlay that match are placed in the appropriate positions and unavailable specification elements are created with the specified fill group.

param Number fill ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=0, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )

debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Overlay

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. threshold ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Threshold a given Image whereby all values higher than a given level map to the specified high value and all values lower than that level map to the specified low value.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Threshold, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the thresholded output.
param Number level ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=0.5, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
The value at which the threshold is applied. Values lower than the threshold map to the ‘low’ value and values above map to the ‘high’ value.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param Number high ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=1.0, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
The value given to elements greater than (or equal to) the threshold.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Number low ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=0.0, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
The value given to elements below the threshold.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Image

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. categorical_aggregate2d ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Generates a gridded Dataset of 2D aggregate arrays indexed by the first two dimensions of the passed Element, turning all remaining dimensions into value dimensions. The key dimensions of the gridded array are treated as categorical indices. Useful for data indexed by two independent categorical variables such as a table of population values indexed by country and year. Data that is indexed by continuous dimensions should be binned before aggregation. The aggregation will retain the global sorting order of both dimensions.

>> table = Table([(‘USA’, 2000, 282.2), (‘UK’, 2005, 58.89)],
kdims=[‘Country’, ‘Year’], vdims=[‘Population’])

>> categorical_aggregate2d(table) Dataset({‘Country’: [‘USA’, ‘UK’], ‘Year’: [2000, 2005],

‘Population’: [[ 282.2 , np.NaN], [np.NaN, 58.89]]},

kdims=[‘Country’, ‘Year’], vdims=[‘Population’])

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param List datatype ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[‘xarray’, ‘grid’], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The grid interface types to use when constructing the gridded Dataset.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. operation ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

The most generic operation that wraps any callable into an ElementOperation. The callable needs to accept an HoloViews component and a key (that may be ignored) and must return a new HoloViews component.

This class may be useful for turning a HoloViews method into an operation to define as compositor operation. For instance, the following definition:

operation.instance(op=lambda x, k: x.collapse(np.subtract))

Could be used to implement a collapse operation to subtracts the data between Rasters in an Overlay.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the result after having applied the operator.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Parameter output_type ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The output element type which may be None to disable type checking. May be used to declare useful information to other code in HoloViews e.g required for tab-completion support of operations registered with compositors.
param Callable op ( allow_None=False, constant=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The operation used to generate a new HoloViews object returned by the operation. By default, the identity operation is applied.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. histogram ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Returns a Histogram of the input element data, binned into num_bins over the bin_range (if specified) along the specified dimension.

param Boolean individually ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=True, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Specifies whether the histogram will be rescaled for each Element in a UniformNdMapping.
param Boolean nonzero ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether to use only nonzero values when computing the histogram
param Boolean normed ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=True, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the histogram frequencies are normalized.
param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param Boolean mean_weighted ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the weighted frequencies are averaged.
param String style_prefix ( allow_None=None, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Used for setting a common style for histograms in a HoloMap or AdjointLayout.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param String dimension ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Along which dimension of the Element to compute the histogram.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param String weight_dimension ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Name of the dimension the weighting should be drawn from
param NumericTuple bin_range ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, length=2, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Specifies the range within which to compute the bins.
param Integer num_bins ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=20, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
Number of bins in the histogram .
param Boolean log ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether to use base 10 logarithmic samples for the bin edges.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. contours ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Given a Image with a single channel, annotate it with contour lines for a given set of contour levels.

The return is an NdOverlay with a Contours layer for each given level, overlaid on top of the input Image.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Level, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the output contours.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param NumericTuple levels ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default=(0.5,), instantiate=False, length=1, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
A list of scalar values used to specify the contour levels.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Boolean overlaid ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=True, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether to overlay the contour on the supplied Element.
param Boolean filled ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether to generate filled contours
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Overlay

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation. Compositor ( pattern , operation , group , mode , **kwargs ) [source]

Bases: param.parameterized.Parameterized

A Compositor is a way of specifying an operation to be automatically applied to Overlays that match a specified pattern upon display.

Any ElementOperation that takes an Overlay as input may be used to define a compositor.

For instance, a compositor may be defined to automatically display three overlaid monochrome matrices as an RGB image as long as the values names of those matrices match ‘R’, ‘G’ and ‘B’.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group identifier for the output of this particular compositor
param String pattern ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The overlay pattern to be processed. An overlay pattern is a sequence of elements specified by dotted paths separated by * . For instance the following pattern specifies three overlayed matrices with values of ‘RedChannel’, ‘GreenChannel’ and ‘BlueChannel’ respectively: ‘Image.RedChannel * Image.GreenChannel * Image.BlueChannel. This pattern specification could then be associated with the RGB operation that returns a single RGB matrix for display.
param ObjectSelector mode ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=data, instantiate=False, objects=[‘data’, ‘display’], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The mode of the Compositor object which may be either ‘data’ or ‘display’.
param Dict kwargs ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Optional set of parameters to pass to the operation.
param Parameter operation ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The ElementOperation to apply when collapsing overlays.
apply ( value , input_ranges , key=None ) [source]

Apply the compositor on the input with the given input ranges.

classmethod collapse ( holomap , ranges=None , mode='data' ) [source]

Given a map of Overlays, apply all applicable compositors.

classmethod collapse_element ( overlay , key=None , ranges=None , mode='data' ) [source]

Finds any applicable compositor and applies it.

debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
match_level ( overlay ) [source]

Given an overlay, return the match level and applicable slice of the overall overlay. The level an integer if there is a match or None if there is no match.

The level integer is the number of matching components. Higher values indicate a stronger match.

message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

Returns the operation output_type unless explicitly overridden in the kwargs.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix=' ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

(Experimental) Pretty printed representation that may be evaluated with eval. See pprint() function for more details.

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Variant of __repr__ designed for generating a runnable script.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

classmethod strongest_match ( overlay , mode ) [source]

Returns the single strongest matching compositor operation given an overlay. If no matches are found, None is returned.

The best match is defined as the compositor operation with the highest match value as returned by the match_level method.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.


datashader Module


element Module

Inheritance diagram of holoviews.operation.element

Collection of either extremely generic or simple ElementOperation examples.

class holoviews.operation.element. chain ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Defining an ElementOperation chain is an easy way to define a new ElementOperation from a series of existing ones. The argument is a list of ElementOperation (or ElementOperation instances) that are called in sequence to generate the returned element.

chain(operations=[gradient, threshold.instance(level=2)])

This operation can accept an Image instance and would first compute the gradient before thresholding the result at a level of 2.0.

Instances are only required when arguments need to be passed to individual operations so the resulting object is a function over a single argument.

param List operations ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
A list of ElementOperations (or ElementOperation instances) that are applied on the input from left to right..
param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Chain, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the result after having applied the chain.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Parameter output_type ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default=<class ‘holoviews.element.raster.Image’>, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The output type of the chain operation. Must be supplied if the chain is to be used as a channel operation.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Image

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. collapse ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Given an overlay of Element types, collapse into single Element object using supplied function. Collapsing aggregates over the key dimensions of each object applying the supplied fn to each group.

This is an example of an ElementOperation that does not involve any Raster types.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Callable fn ( allow_None=False, constant=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The function that is used to collapse the curve y-values for each x-value.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

fn ( a , axis=None , dtype=None , out=None , keepdims=<class numpy._globals._NoValue> )

Compute the arithmetic mean along the specified axis.

Returns the average of the array elements. The average is taken over the flattened array by default, otherwise over the specified axis. float64 intermediate and return values are used for integer inputs.

a : array_like
Array containing numbers whose mean is desired. If a is not an array, a conversion is attempted.
axis : None or int or tuple of ints, optional

Axis or axes along which the means are computed. The default is to compute the mean of the flattened array.

If this is a tuple of ints, a mean is performed over multiple axes, instead of a single axis or all the axes as before.

dtype : data-type, optional
Type to use in computing the mean. For integer inputs, the default is float64 ; for floating point inputs, it is the same as the input dtype.
out : ndarray, optional
Alternate output array in which to place the result. The default is None ; if provided, it must have the same shape as the expected output, but the type will be cast if necessary. See doc.ufuncs for details.
keepdims : bool, optional

If this is set to True, the axes which are reduced are left in the result as dimensions with size one. With this option, the result will broadcast correctly against the original arr .

If the default value is passed, then keepdims will not be passed through to the mean method of sub-classes of ndarray , however any non-default value will be. If the sub-classes sum method does not implement keepdims any exceptions will be raised.

m : ndarray, see dtype parameter above
If out=None , returns a new array containing the mean values, otherwise a reference to the output array is returned.

average : Weighted average std, var, nanmean, nanstd, nanvar

The arithmetic mean is the sum of the elements along the axis divided by the number of elements.

Note that for floating-point input, the mean is computed using the same precision the input has. Depending on the input data, this can cause the results to be inaccurate, especially for float32 (see example below). Specifying a higher-precision accumulator using the dtype keyword can alleviate this issue.

>>> a = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
>>> np.mean(a)
2.5
>>> np.mean(a, axis=0)
array([ 2.,  3.])
>>> np.mean(a, axis=1)
array([ 1.5,  3.5])

In single precision, mean can be inaccurate:

>>> a = np.zeros((2, 512*512), dtype=np.float32)
>>> a[0, :] = 1.0
>>> a[1, :] = 0.1
>>> np.mean(a)
0.546875

Computing the mean in float64 is more accurate:

>>> np.mean(a, dtype=np.float64)
0.55000000074505806
force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. contours ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Given a Image with a single channel, annotate it with contour lines for a given set of contour levels.

The return is an NdOverlay with a Contours layer for each given level, overlaid on top of the input Image.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Level, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the output contours.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param NumericTuple levels ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default=(0.5,), instantiate=False, length=1, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
A list of scalar values used to specify the contour levels.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Boolean overlaid ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=True, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether to overlay the contour on the supplied Element.
param Boolean filled ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether to generate filled contours
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Overlay

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. convolve ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Apply a convolution to an overlay using the top layer as the kernel for convolving the bottom layer. Both Image elements in the input overlay should have a single value dimension.

param NumericTuple kernel_roi ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default=(0, 0, 0, 0), instantiate=False, length=4, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
A 2-dimensional slice of the kernel layer to use in the convolution in lbrt (left, bottom, right, top) format. By default, no slicing is applied.
param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Convolution, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the convolved output.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Image

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. decimate ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Decimates any column based Element to a specified number of random rows if the current view defined by the x_range and y_range contains more than max_samples. By default the operation returns a DynamicMap with a RangeXY stream allowing dynamic downsampling.

param Integer max_samples ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=5000, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
Maximum number of samples to display at the same time.
param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param NumericTuple x_range ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, length=2, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The x_range as a tuple of min and max x-value. Auto-ranges if set to None.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=True, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
By default, the link_inputs parameter is set to True so that when applying shade, backends that support linked streams update RangeXY streams on the inputs of the shade operation.
param Boolean dynamic ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=True, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Enables dynamic processing by default.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[<class ‘holoviews.streams.RangeXY’>], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Integer random_seed ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=42, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
Seed used to initialize randomization.
param NumericTuple y_range ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, length=2, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The x_range as a tuple of min and max y-value. Auto-ranges if set to None.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. factory ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Simple operation that constructs any element that accepts some other element as input. For instance, RGB and HSV elements can be created from overlays of Image elements.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Parameter output_type ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default=<class ‘holoviews.element.raster.RGB’>, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The output type of the factor operation. By default, if three overlaid Images elements are supplied, the corresponding RGB element will be returned.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of RGB

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. gradient ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Compute the gradient plot of the supplied Image.

If the Image value dimension is cyclic, the smallest step is taken considered the cyclic range

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Gradient, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the output gradient matrix.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Image

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. gridmatrix ( **params ) [source]

Bases: param.parameterized.ParameterizedFunction

The gridmatrix operation takes an Element or HoloMap of Elements as input and creates a GridMatrix object, which plots each dimension in the Element against each other dimension. This provides a very useful overview of high-dimensional data and is inspired by pandas and seaborn scatter_matrix implementations.

param Parameter diagonal_operation ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default=<class ‘holoviews.operation.element.histogram’>, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The operation applied along the diagonal, may be a histogram-operation or any other function which returns a viewable element.
param Parameter chart_type ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default=<class ‘holoviews.element.chart.Scatter’>, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The Element type used to display bivariate distributions of the data.
param List overlay_dims ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If a HoloMap is supplied this will allow overlaying one or more of it’s key dimensions.
param Parameter diagonal_type ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The Element type along the diagonal, may be a Histogram or any other plot type which can visualize a univariate distribution. This parameter overrides diagonal_operation.
chart_type

alias of Scatter

debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

diagonal_operation

alias of histogram

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. histogram ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Returns a Histogram of the input element data, binned into num_bins over the bin_range (if specified) along the specified dimension.

param Boolean individually ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=True, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Specifies whether the histogram will be rescaled for each Element in a UniformNdMapping.
param Boolean nonzero ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether to use only nonzero values when computing the histogram
param Boolean normed ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=True, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the histogram frequencies are normalized.
param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param Boolean mean_weighted ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the weighted frequencies are averaged.
param String style_prefix ( allow_None=None, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Used for setting a common style for histograms in a HoloMap or AdjointLayout.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param String dimension ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Along which dimension of the Element to compute the histogram.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param String weight_dimension ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Name of the dimension the weighting should be drawn from
param NumericTuple bin_range ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, length=2, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Specifies the range within which to compute the bins.
param Integer num_bins ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=20, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
Number of bins in the histogram .
param Boolean log ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether to use base 10 logarithmic samples for the bin edges.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. image_overlay ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Operation to build a overlay of images to a specification from a subset of the required elements.

This is useful for reordering the elements of an overlay, duplicating layers of an overlay or creating blank image elements in the appropriate positions.

For instance, image_overlay may build a three layered input suitable for the RGB factory operation even if supplied with one or two of the required channels (creating blank channels for the missing elements).

Note that if there is any ambiguity regarding the match, the strongest match will be used. In the case of a tie in match strength, the first layer in the input is used. One successful match is always required.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Transform, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the resulting overlay.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Tuple default_range ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default=(0, 1), instantiate=False, length=2, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The default range that will be set on the value_dimension of any automatically created blank image elements.
param String spec ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Specification of the output Overlay structure. For instance: Image.R * Image.G * Image.B Will ensure an overlay of this structure is created even if (for instance) only (Image.R * Image.B) is supplied. Elements in the input overlay that match are placed in the appropriate positions and unavailable specification elements are created with the specified fill group.

param Number fill ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=0, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )

debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Overlay

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. interpolate_curve ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Resamples a Curve using the defined interpolation method, e.g. to represent changes in y-values as steps.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param ObjectSelector interpolation ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=steps-mid, instantiate=False, objects=[‘steps-pre’, ‘steps-mid’, ‘steps-post’, ‘linear’], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Controls the transition point of the step along the x-axis.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. operation ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

The most generic operation that wraps any callable into an ElementOperation. The callable needs to accept an HoloViews component and a key (that may be ignored) and must return a new HoloViews component.

This class may be useful for turning a HoloViews method into an operation to define as compositor operation. For instance, the following definition:

operation.instance(op=lambda x, k: x.collapse(np.subtract))

Could be used to implement a collapse operation to subtracts the data between Rasters in an Overlay.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the result after having applied the operator.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Parameter output_type ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The output element type which may be None to disable type checking. May be used to declare useful information to other code in HoloViews e.g required for tab-completion support of operations registered with compositors.
param Callable op ( allow_None=False, constant=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The operation used to generate a new HoloViews object returned by the operation. By default, the identity operation is applied.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. stack_area ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Stacks an (Nd)Overlay of Area Elements by offsetting their baseline.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. threshold ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Threshold a given Image whereby all values higher than a given level map to the specified high value and all values lower than that level map to the specified low value.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Threshold, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the thresholded output.
param Number level ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=0.5, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
The value at which the threshold is applied. Values lower than the threshold map to the ‘low’ value and values above map to the ‘high’ value.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param Number high ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=1.0, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
The value given to elements greater than (or equal to) the threshold.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Number low ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=0.0, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
The value given to elements below the threshold.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Image

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.element. transform ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Generic ElementOperation to transform an input Image or RGBA element into an output Image. The transformation is defined by the supplied callable that accepts the data of the input Image (typically a numpy array) and returns the transformed data of the output Image.

This operator is extremely versatile; for instance, you could implement an alternative to the explict threshold operator with:

operator=lambda x: np.clip(x, 0, 0.5)

Alternatively, you can implement a transform computing the 2D autocorrelation using the scipy library with:

operator=lambda x: scipy.signal.correlate2d(x, x)

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Transform, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group assigned to the result after applying the transform.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param Callable operator ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Function of one argument that transforms the data in the input Image to the data in the output Image. By default, acts as the identity function such that the output matches the input.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

output_type

alias of Image

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.


normalization Module

Inheritance diagram of holoviews.operation.normalization

Data normalization operations.

Normalizing input data into a valid range is a common operation and often required before further processing. The semantics of normalization are dependent on the element type being normalized making it difficult to provide a general and consistent interface.

The Normalization class is used to define such an interface and subclasses are used to implement the appropriate normalization operations per element type. Unlike display normalization, data normalizations result in transformations to the stored data within each element.

class holoviews.operation.normalization. Normalization ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Base class for all normalization operation.

This class standardizes how normalization is specified using the ranges and keys parameter. The ranges parameter is designed to be very flexible, allowing a concise desciption for simple normalization while allowing complex key- and element- specific normalization to also be specified.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param List keys ( allow_None=True, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=None, instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If supplied, this list of keys is zipped with the supplied list of ranges. These keys are used to supply key specific normalization for HoloMaps containing matching key values, enabling per-element normalization.
param Boolean data_range ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether normalization is allowed to use the minimum and maximum values of the existing data to infer an appropriate range
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector ranges ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The simplest value of this parameter is None to skip all normalization. The next simplest value is an empty dictionary to only applies normalization to Dimensions with explicitly declared ranges. The next most common specification is a dictionary of values and tuple ranges. The value keys are the names of the dimensions to be normalized and the tuple ranges are of form (lower-bound, upper-bound). For instance, you could specify: {‘Height’:(0, 200), ‘z’:(0,1)} In this case, any element with a ‘Height’ or ‘z’ dimension (or both) will be normalized to the supplied ranges. Finally, element-specific normalization may also be specified by supplying a match tuple of form (<type>, <group>, <label>). A 1- or 2-tuple may be supplied by omitting the <group>, <label> or just the <label> components respectively. This tuple key then uses the dictionary value-range specification decribed above. For instance, you could normalize only the Image elements of group pattern using: {(‘Image’,’Pattern’):{‘Height’:(0, 200), ‘z’:(0,1)}}) Key-wise normalization is possible for all these formats by supplying a list of such dictionary specification that will then be zipped with the keys parameter (if specified).
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_ranges ( element , key ) [source]

Method to get the appropriate normalization range dictionary given a key and element.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.normalization. raster_normalization ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.operation.normalization.Normalization

Normalizes elements of type Raster.

For Raster elements containing (NxM) data, this will normalize the array/matrix into the specified range if value_dimension matches a key in the ranges dictionary.

For elements containing (NxMxD) data, the (NxM) components of the third dimensional are normalized independently if the corresponding value dimensions are selected by the ranges dictionary.

param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param List keys ( allow_None=True, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=None, instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If supplied, this list of keys is zipped with the supplied list of ranges. These keys are used to supply key specific normalization for HoloMaps containing matching key values, enabling per-element normalization.
param Boolean data_range ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether normalization is allowed to use the minimum and maximum values of the existing data to infer an appropriate range
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param ClassSelector ranges ( allow_None=True, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The simplest value of this parameter is None to skip all normalization. The next simplest value is an empty dictionary to only applies normalization to Dimensions with explicitly declared ranges. The next most common specification is a dictionary of values and tuple ranges. The value keys are the names of the dimensions to be normalized and the tuple ranges are of form (lower-bound, upper-bound). For instance, you could specify: {‘Height’:(0, 200), ‘z’:(0,1)} In this case, any element with a ‘Height’ or ‘z’ dimension (or both) will be normalized to the supplied ranges. Finally, element-specific normalization may also be specified by supplying a match tuple of form (<type>, <group>, <label>). A 1- or 2-tuple may be supplied by omitting the <group>, <label> or just the <label> components respectively. This tuple key then uses the dictionary value-range specification decribed above. For instance, you could normalize only the Image elements of group pattern using: {(‘Image’,’Pattern’):{‘Height’:(0, 200), ‘z’:(0,1)}}) Key-wise normalization is possible for all these formats by supplying a list of such dictionary specification that will then be zipped with the keys parameter (if specified).
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_ranges ( element , key )

Method to get the appropriate normalization range dictionary given a key and element.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.


timeseries Module

Inheritance diagram of holoviews.operation.timeseries

class holoviews.operation.timeseries. RollingBase ( **params ) [source]

Bases: param.parameterized.Parameterized

Parameters shared between rolling and rolling_outlier_std .

param Integer rolling_window ( allow_None=False, bounds=None, constant=False, default=10, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
The window size over which to operate.
param Integer min_periods ( allow_None=True, bounds=None, constant=False, default=None, inclusive_bounds=(True, True), instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False, time_dependent=False, time_fn=<Time Time00001> )
Minimum number of observations in window required to have a value (otherwise result is NaN).
param Boolean center ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=True, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether to set the x-coordinate at the center or right edge of the window.
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix=' ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

(Experimental) Pretty printed representation that may be evaluated with eval. See pprint() function for more details.

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Variant of __repr__ designed for generating a runnable script.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )

Restore the most recently saved state.

See state_push() for more details.

state_push ( )

Save this instance’s state.

For Parameterized instances, this includes the state of dynamically generated values.

Subclasses that maintain short-term state should additionally save and restore that state using state_push() and state_pop().

Generally, this method is used by operations that need to test something without permanently altering the objects’ state.

verbose ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a verbose message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

warning ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a warning, unless module variable warnings_as_exceptions is True, then raise an Exception containing the arguments.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

class holoviews.operation.timeseries. resample ( **params ) [source]

Bases: holoviews.core.operation.ElementOperation

Resamples a timeseries of dates with a frequency and function.

param Callable function ( allow_None=False, constant=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Function for computing new values out of existing ones.
param String group ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=Operation, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The group string used to identify the output of the Operation. By default this should match the operation name.
param Boolean link_inputs ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, 1), constant=False, default=False, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
If the operation is dynamic, whether or not linked streams should be transferred from the operation inputs for backends that support linked streams. For example if an operation is applied to a DynamicMap with an RangeXY, this switch determines whether the corresponding visualization should update this stream with range changes originating from the newly generated axes.
param ObjectSelector dynamic ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=default, instantiate=False, objects=[‘default’, True, False], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Whether the operation should be applied dynamically when a specific frame is requested, specified as a Boolean. If set to ‘default’ the mode will be determined based on the input type, i.e. if the data is a DynamicMap it will stay dynamic.
param String rule ( allow_None=False, basestring=<type ‘basestring’>, constant=False, default=D, instantiate=False, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
A string representing the time interval over which to apply the resampling
param ObjectSelector label ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=False, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=right, instantiate=False, objects=[], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
The bin edge to label the bin with.
param ClassSelector input_ranges ( allow_None=False, constant=False, default={}, instantiate=True, is_instance=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Ranges to be used for input normalization (if applicable) in a format appropriate for the Normalization.ranges parameter. By default, no normalization is applied. If key-wise normalization is required, a 2-tuple may be supplied where the first component is a Normalization.ranges list and the second component is Normalization.keys.
param List streams ( allow_None=False, bounds=(0, None), constant=False, default=[], instantiate=True, pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
List of streams that are applied if dynamic=True, allowing for dynamic interaction with the plot.
param ObjectSelector closed ( allow_None=None, check_on_set=True, compute_default_fn=None, constant=False, default=None, instantiate=False, objects=[‘left’, ‘right’], pickle_default_value=True, precedence=None, readonly=False )
Which side of bin interval is closed
debug ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a debugging statement.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

defaults ( )

Return {parameter_name:parameter.default} for all non-constant Parameters.

Note that a Parameter for which instantiate==True has its default instantiated.

force_new_dynamic_value = <functools.partial object>
function ( a , axis=None , dtype=None , out=None , keepdims=<class numpy._globals._NoValue> )

Compute the arithmetic mean along the specified axis.

Returns the average of the array elements. The average is taken over the flattened array by default, otherwise over the specified axis. float64 intermediate and return values are used for integer inputs.

a : array_like
Array containing numbers whose mean is desired. If a is not an array, a conversion is attempted.
axis : None or int or tuple of ints, optional

Axis or axes along which the means are computed. The default is to compute the mean of the flattened array.

If this is a tuple of ints, a mean is performed over multiple axes, instead of a single axis or all the axes as before.

dtype : data-type, optional
Type to use in computing the mean. For integer inputs, the default is float64 ; for floating point inputs, it is the same as the input dtype.
out : ndarray, optional
Alternate output array in which to place the result. The default is None ; if provided, it must have the same shape as the expected output, but the type will be cast if necessary. See doc.ufuncs for details.
keepdims : bool, optional

If this is set to True, the axes which are reduced are left in the result as dimensions with size one. With this option, the result will broadcast correctly against the original arr .

If the default value is passed, then keepdims will not be passed through to the mean method of sub-classes of ndarray , however any non-default value will be. If the sub-classes sum method does not implement keepdims any exceptions will be raised.

m : ndarray, see dtype parameter above
If out=None , returns a new array containing the mean values, otherwise a reference to the output array is returned.

average : Weighted average std, var, nanmean, nanstd, nanvar

The arithmetic mean is the sum of the elements along the axis divided by the number of elements.

Note that for floating-point input, the mean is computed using the same precision the input has. Depending on the input data, this can cause the results to be inaccurate, especially for float32 (see example below). Specifying a higher-precision accumulator using the dtype keyword can alleviate this issue.

>>> a = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
>>> np.mean(a)
2.5
>>> np.mean(a, axis=0)
array([ 2.,  3.])
>>> np.mean(a, axis=1)
array([ 1.5,  3.5])

In single precision, mean can be inaccurate:

>>> a = np.zeros((2, 512*512), dtype=np.float32)
>>> a[0, :] = 1.0
>>> a[1, :] = 0.1
>>> np.mean(a)
0.546875

Computing the mean in float64 is more accurate:

>>> np.mean(a, dtype=np.float64)
0.55000000074505806
get_overlay_bounds ( overlay )

Returns the extents if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent extents, otherwise raises an exception.

get_overlay_label ( overlay , default_label='' )

Returns a label if all the elements of an overlay agree on a consistent label, otherwise returns the default label.

get_param_values ( onlychanged=False )

Return a list of name,value pairs for all Parameters of this object.

If onlychanged is True, will only return values that are not equal to the default value.

get_value_generator = <functools.partial object>
inspect_value = <functools.partial object>
instance = <functools.partial object>
message ( msg , *args , **kw )

Print msg merged with args as a message.

See Python’s logging module for details of message formatting.

params ( parameter_name=None )

Return the Parameters of this class as the dictionary {name: parameter_object}

Includes Parameters from this class and its superclasses.

pprint ( imports=None , prefix='\n ' , unknown_value='<?>' , qualify=False , separator='' )

Same as Parameterized.pprint, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

print_param_defaults ( )

Print the default values of all cls’s Parameters.

print_param_values ( )

Print the values of all this object’s Parameters.

process_element ( element , key , **params )

The process_element method allows a single element to be operated on given an externally supplied key.

script_repr ( imports=[] , prefix=' ' )

Same as Parameterized.script_repr, except that X.classname(Y is replaced with X.classname.instance(Y

search ( element , pattern )

Helper method that returns a list of elements that match the given path pattern of form {type}.{group}.{label}.

The input may be a Layout, an Overlay type or a single Element.

set_default ( param_name , value )

Set the default value of param_name.

Equivalent to setting param_name on the class.

set_dynamic_time_fn = <functools.partial object>
set_param = <functools.partial object>
state_pop ( )